# The Scala Build Tool – It is all about Settings and Tasks

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Dec 08, 2018
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The Scala Build Tool or sbt for short, is a build tool for building source code. It is a very advanced tool that is based on a workflow engine. In contrast to other build tools, scala is very simple, well, if you know just a couple of concepts.

## Concepts

Lets introduce the core concepts of our build. When we create a project for example with the following command:

sbt new dnvriend/scala-seed.g8

Sbt will create a directory structure like the following:

study-sbt
├── build.sbt
└── src
├── main
│   └── scala
│       └── com
│           └── github
│               └── dnvriend
│                   └── HelloWorld.scala
└── test
└── scala
└── com
└── github
└── dnvriend
├── PersonTest.scala
└── TestSpec.scala

We see the well known directory structure src/main that will contain both our Scala and Java source code to be build and a build.sbt file that describes our build. The build.sbt file is optional. When we do not have a build.sbt file, sbt will use default values to still build or source code.
When we as developers do not state otherwise (in the build.sbt file for example), sbt assumes that there is only a single project to be build. That single project is called ‘the default project’ and sbt will assume that the base directory of that single project is the current directory so ‘{.}’.
In the example above, and for 90% of all projects this will be the case. A directory structure like above, most likely with a build.sbt file definiting some settings like eg. a name and a version.

### Build

What is the Build? Well, the build is just a collection of Projects that Sbt should build. We as developers identify to Sbt which projects there are, where they are located and what their names are. When we do not specify projects, sbt will assume a single project in the current directory, but we as developers can define other projects that Sbt should build. So the build says something about one or more projects that Sbt should build.

### Project

A Build concerns itself with one or more projects, and a projects concerns itself with settings. For example, which libraries should be used to compile the project with, which Scala version to use and maybe which version the project is eg. 1.0.0-SNAPSHOT version etc.

### Settings

So a Build builds projects, Projects define themselves using settings, then what is a Setting. Well, a Setting is a Key -> Value pair. It is something like:

name := "my-project"
version := "1.0.0-SNAPSHOT"
libraryDependencies += "foo" %% "bar" %% "1.0.0"

So a setting is just a Key -> Value pair. What is unique about settings is that the key -> value pair will be initialized by sbt start-up, so when you start SBT. So the values are initialized only once.

So a Build builds projects, Projects define themselves using settings, and settings are Key -> Value pairs that are initialized only once when Sbt launches. Then what are tasks? A Task is a Key -> Value pair that is evaluated on demand. A Task exists to be evaluated every time it is needed. Most of the time Tasks are used for doing side effects like the task ‘clean’ or the task ‘compile’.
Because a Task is a Key -> Value pair, just like a Setting (which is also a Key -> Value pair), you can ‘call’ a Task by just typing the name of the Key and Sbt will evaluate the Key to a value.
We can show the result of either a Setting or a Task using the sbt-console with the help of the ‘show’ command. For example, when we type ‘show name’, sbt will evaluate the Key ‘name’ and return the evaluated value. Of course, because ‘name’ is a Setting, the initialization has already been done when Sbt started, so it will return the value immediately:

> name
[info] study-sbt

We can also evaluate a Task. As I stated earlier, a Task is just a Key -> Value pair that will be evaluated on demand so it exist to be evaluated when we need it and most of the time we use a Task to do side effects like the Task ‘clean’:

> show clean
[info] ()
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 17-feb-2017 9:06:18

The Task clean evaluates to the value ‘()’ of type Unit which is returned, because it does side effects like deleting the contents of the ‘./target’ directory.

### Recap until now

So a Build contains one or more projects. A project defines itself using settings. A Setting is just a Key -> Value pair that is initialized only once and a Task is a Key -> Value pair that will be evaluated on demand.

### Configurations

I will assume that you already know a little how sbt works and are already working with it so you know that sbt supports testing. For unit testing you will need for example the ScalaTest and if you are creating reactive applications, the akka-testkit library as a dependency. Also, we have split the code that is for testing from our business code. The code bases have different paths, eg. the test code exists in ‘./src/main/test’ and this code base has a dependency with the test libraries that our business code doesn’t have.
Sbt uses Configurations to segment Settings so it knows which setting to use when a certain task is being executed. There are a lot of Configurations defined in Sbt and you can also define your own. We will look into those a little bit later.
For example, the key sourceDirectories lists all directories that will be used by sbt to build the project. For example, when we type ‘test’ then the sourceDirectories for the test configuration will be used. Lets say we want to create our own test Task which we will call ‘mytest’:

// first define a task key
lazy val mytest = taskKey[Unit]("My test key to show how scoped settings work")

// then implement the task key
mytest := {
val dirs = (sourceDirectories in Test).value
println(dirs)
}

When we run ‘mytest’ then the output is:

> mytest
List(
/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/src/test/scala-2.12,
/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/src/test/scala,
/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/src/test/java,
/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/target/scala-2.12/src_managed/test
)
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 17-feb-2017 12:52:31

Lets say that we want to create our own compile Task which we will call ‘mycompile’ then it could be this:

lazy val mycompile = taskKey[Unit]("My compile key to show how scoped settings work")

mycompile := {
val dirs = (sourceDirectories in Compile).value
println(dirs)
}
> mycompile
List(
/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/src/main/scala-2.12,
/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/src/main/scala,
/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/src/main/java,
/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/target/scala-2.12/src_managed/main
)
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 17-feb-2017 12:56:24

So the key ‘sourceDirectories’ has a different value for different scopes and it depends on the implementation of the Task where it looks to get the value of a Key. In our examples we specifically look for a value for (sourceDirectories in Test).value to get the value and for (sourceDirectories in Compile).value.
We can also query sbt for these values without creating a custom Task. For example, to get the value of the key ‘sourceDirectories’ in the Configuration ‘Test’ we type:

> test:sourceDirectories
[info] * /Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/src/test/scala-2.12
[info] * /Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/src/test/scala
[info] * /Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/src/test/java
[info] * /Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/target/scala-2.12/src_managed/test

And for the Configuration ‘Compile’ we type:

> compile:sourceDirectories
[info] * /Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/src/main/scala-2.12
[info] * /Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/src/main/scala
[info] * /Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/src/main/java
[info] * /Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/target/scala-2.12/src_managed/main

Of course, a setting or a task does not have to exist in a certain Configuration like eg. the task ‘test’ does exist in the Configuration ‘test’ (of course):

> test:test
[info] Done updating.
[success] Total time: 1 s, completed Oct 31, 2017 7:05:17 AM

But the task ‘test’ does not exist in the Configuration ‘compile’:

> compile:test
[error] No such setting/task
[error] compile:test
[error]

But when we type the following:

> test
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed Oct 31, 2017 7:09:01 AM

The task ‘test’ works without specifying the ‘test’ configuration like above we typed ‘test:test’, how come? You can define settings and tasks specific for a Configuration like ‘Test’ or ‘Compile’, but you can also define settings and tasks that apply for all configurations. The task ‘test’ is made available in all scopes. In this case that is reasonable, because it is very handy to just type ‘test’ and have the test task executed.
In Sbt you can use the symbol ‘*’ and that means ‘all’ so if we want to get the value of the key ‘name’ in all configurations that we can also type:

> *:name
[info] study-sbt

When we just type ‘name’ for example, then sbt will assume that we want the value of key ‘*:name’ thats why it works.
Lets say that we want to do something strange like setting the name of the project to a different name for the Configuration ‘Test’ only and lets say that the value in that configuration will be ‘study-sbt-in-test’, then we would add the following to build.sbt:

name in Test := "study-sbt-in-test"

Alternatively, we can also type the following in an Sbt session in which case the setting will not be persistent but only for the duration of the Sbt console session:

set name in Test := "study-sbt-in-test"
[info] Defining test:name
[info] The new value will be used by test:packageBin::packageOptions, test:packageSrc::packageOptions
[info] Reapplying settings...
[info] Set current project to study-sbt (in build file:/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/)

And lets change the name in the Configuration ‘Compile’:

set name in Compile := "study-sbt-in-compile"
[info] Defining test:name
[info] The new value will be used by test:packageBin::packageOptions, test:packageSrc::packageOptions
[info] Reapplying settings...
[info] Set current project to study-sbt (in build file:/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/)

We will now query the value for name for different scopes:

> name
[info] study-sbt
> *:name
[info] study-sbt
> test:name
[info] study-sbt-in-test
> compile:name
[info] study-sbt-in-compile

Note: In Sbt older than v1.0 the key-in-configuration fallback value resolution was a bit buggy and the fallback value resolution didn’t always work as expected.

### Configuration by Task

A configuration can also be scoped to a specific Task for example add the following to build.sbt:

lazy val mysetting = settingKey[String]("My setting")

mysetting := "mysetting for the current project, all configurations and all tasks"

mysetting in Test := "mysetting for the current project, for the Test configuration and all tasks"

mysetting in Test in MyTask := "mysetting for the current project, for the Test configuration for the task MyTask only"

val str = (mysetting in Test in MyTask).value
println(str)
}
mysetting for the current project, for the Test configuration for the task MyTask only
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 17-feb-2017 13:15:28

The task MyTask will look specifically for a value for the setting ‘mysetting’ and it will look in the Configuration ‘Test’ and for the task ‘MyTask’. We have specified this by typing (mysetting in Test in MyTask).value so that is very specific.
Of course, when the setting cannot be found, sbt will look for fallback alternatives, so if you comment out the line:

mysetting in Test in MyTask := "mysetting for the current project, for the Test configuration for the task MyTask only"

Sbt will use the next fallback and so on:

mysetting for the current project, for the Test configuration and all tasks
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 17-feb-2017 13:18:38

And now also comment out the line:

mysetting in Test := "mysetting for the current project, for the Test configuration and all tasks"

Sbt will use the next fallback and so on:

mysetting for the current project, all configurations and all tasks
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 17-feb-2017 13:18:38

### Configuration by Task ‘initialCommands in console’

As we have seen, configurations can be scoped by task. In sbt this type of configuration is used when launching the REPL
using the ‘console’ eg: ‘sbt console’. We have to configure the ‘initialCommands’ settingKey which is of type ‘String’ and
set the scope to the taskKey ‘console’:

initialCommands in console :=
"""
import scalaz._
import Scalaz._
import com.github.dnvriend._
val xs = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
"""

When we launch the REPL from sbt then the following expressions will be evaluated.

### Keys

To be able to configure anything in the build, from a Setting to a Task, Keys play an important role because a Key allow us to bind a value to a name. As we have seen, a Key is simply a name that can be created with the method ‘settingKey’ and ‘taskKey’, and then you can use the newly created key and bind that key to a specific value in a specific Configuration and Task. For example:

name := "study-sbt"

name in Test := "study-sbt-in-test"

name in Compile := "study-sbt-in-compile"

name in Compile in compile := "study-sbt-in-compile-for-the-task-compile"

We can query these settings:

> name
[info] study-sbt
> *:name
[info] study-sbt
> test:name
[info] study-sbt-in-test
> compile:name
[info] study-sbt-in-compile
> compile:compile::name

The last syntax is new and must be read as:

Give me the value for the key 'name' in the configuration 'Compile' for the task 'compile'.

### Inspecting Sbt Settings

You’ve learned a lot about Sbt, what a build is, that tasks and settings are and also about scopes. What I want you to do now is take 15 minutes of your time to read the explanation on Inspecting Settings from the Sbt documentation. When you can inspect your settings and understand what the effective settings and tasks will be used you will have a better Sbt development experience in general.
Lets take a closer look at inspecting a task. The following example shows three tasks where task3 is dependent on task2 and task1:

If we inspect the build, we see the following dependencies:

[info] content:
[info] Provided by:
[info] Dependencies:

We see that task3 is dependent on task2 and task2 and this is also the evaluation order. If we change the dependency that task3 is dependent on task1 that depends on task2 we see the following:

[info] content:
[info] Provided by:
[info] Dependencies:

We have changed the sequence of the dependencies.
Now lets take a quick look at a full inspect output. It contains the following:

• Provided by: shows the actual scope (the full scope) where the setting is defined
• Dependencies: list all the inputs to a task. The listing is the sequence of evaluation and if possible, sbt will try to evaluate the dependencies in parallel. The entries show the configuration, task and setting that is an input for the task. Please note that these entries are the defined inputs with scope. To see the ‘actual’ values, please use the inspect actual <key> command,
• Delegatess: A setting has a key and a scope. A request for a key in a scope ‘A’ may be delegated to another scope if ‘A’ doesn’t define a value for the key. The delegation chain is well-defined and is displayed in the Delegates section of the inspect command. The Delegates section shows the order in which scopes are searched when a value is not defined for the requested key,
• Related: lists all of the definitions of a key so read these listings as ‘there are also these keys in these scopes you can take a look at’,

### Scope Delegation

Scope delegation is a well-defined fallback search path in Sbt, This feature allows you to set a value once in a more general scope, allowing multiple more-specific scopes to inherit the value.
Lets recap Scopes for a moment:

• A scope is a tuple of components in three axes: (the subproject axis, the configuration axis, and the task axis).
• There’s a special scope component * (also called Global) for any of the scope axes.
• There’s a special scope component ThisBuild (written as ‘{.}’ in shell) for the subprojects axis only.
• Test extends Runtime, and Runtime extends Compile configuration.
• A key placed in build.sbt is scoped to (${current subproject}, *, *) by default. • A key can be further scoped using .in(…) method. The rules for scope delegation are: • Rule 1: Scope axes have the following precedence: the subproject axis, the configuration axis, and then the task axis. • Rule 2: Given a scope, delegate scopes are searched by substituting the task axis in the following order: the given task scoping, and then * (Global), which is non-task scoped version of the scope. • Rule 3: Given a scope, delegate scopes are searched by substituting the configuration axis in the following order: the given configuration, its parents, their parents and so on, and then * (Global, same as unscoped configuration axis). • Rule 4: Given a scope, delegate scopes are searched by substituting the subproject axis in the following order: the given subproject, ThisBuild, and then * (Global). Rule 5: A delegated scoped key and its dependent settings/tasks are evaluated without carrying the original context. ### Custom Configurations We can also create our own configurations. Lets start right away by defining a configuration called ‘my-config’ that will be used by the task ‘MyOtherTask’: lazy val MyConfig = config("my-config") lazy val myOtherSetting = settingKey[String]("My other setting") myOtherSetting := "mysetting for the current project, all configurations and all tasks" myOtherSetting in MyConfig := "mysetting for the current project, for the MyConfig configuration and all tasks" myOtherSetting in MyConfig in MyOtherTask := "mysetting for the current project, for the MyConfig configuration for the task MyOtherTask only" lazy val MyOtherTask = taskKey[Unit]("My other task") MyOtherTask := { val str = (myOtherSetting in MyConfig in MyOtherTask).value println(str) } We can use our custom configuration like any other: > myOtherSetting [info] mysetting for the current project, all configurations and all tasks > my-config:myOtherSetting [info] mysetting for the current project, for the MyConfig configuration and all tasks > my-config:MyOtherTask::myOtherSetting [info] mysetting for the current project, for the MyConfig configuration for the task MyOtherTask only > MyOtherTask mysetting for the current project, for the MyConfig configuration for the task MyOtherTask only [success] Total time: 0 s, completed 17-feb-2017 14:02:51 ### Dependent Tasks We can make tasks dependent on one another. Lets create two tasks: • ‘task1’ will return the String “Hello”, • ‘task2’ will use the value of ‘task1’, so it is dependent on task1 and will therefor call ‘task1’ to get its result. You can see here that tasks, like settings, return a value but do that on demand and will be evaluated every time when called. The task ‘task2’ will return the String “Hello World!”, well thats the idea at least! Lets see if it works as intended: lazy val task1 = taskKey[String]("task 1") lazy val task2 = taskKey[String]("task 2") task1 := { println("Evaluating task1") "Hello" } task2 := { println("Evaluating task2") s"${task1.value} World!"
}

Lets try it out:

[info] Hello
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 17-feb-2017 14:05:38

[info] Hello World!
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 17-feb-2017 14:05:40

It works! See, sbt isn’t that difficult!

### Tasks for a certain configuration

Like a Setting, a Task can also have a different value for a different configuration:

println("Evaluating task1 for current project for all configurations")
"Hello all config"
}

task1 in Test := {
println("Evaluating task1 for current project for Test config")
"Hello test config"
}

task1 in Compile := {
println("Evaluating task1 for current project for Compile config")
"Hello compile config"
}

println("Evaluating task2 for current project for all configurations")
s"$task1Value World!" } Lets try it out: > show task1 Evaluating task1 for current project for all configurations [info] Hello all config [success] Total time: 0 s, completed 18-feb-2017 12:52:08 > show compile:task1 Evaluating task1 for current project for Compile config [info] Hello compile config [success] Total time: 0 s, completed 18-feb-2017 12:52:13 > show test:task1 Evaluating task1 for current project for Test config [info] Hello test config [success] Total time: 0 s, completed 18-feb-2017 12:52:16 > show task2 Evaluating task1 for current project for Test config Evaluating task2 for current project for all configurations [info] Hello test config World! [success] Total time: 0 s, completed 18-feb-2017 12:52:22 ### Task Dependencies In the examples we have created dependencies between two tasks, task1 and task2. In the examples, task2 would ask task1 for its value. In effect the dependency is created in the implementation of the task like so: lazy val task1 = taskKey[String]("task 1") lazy val task2 = taskKey[String]("task 2") task1 := { println("Evaluating task1") "Hello" } task2 := { println("Evaluating task2") s"${task1.value} World!"
}

In the example above we need the evaluated value of task1 to do some computation of our own but what if we just have tasks that do some side effects and all return Unit. What if we need to create a sequence between them, how do we do that?
For example, we have the following three tasks:

Lets try them out:

[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 18-feb-2017 13:24:22
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 18-feb-2017 13:24:23
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 18-feb-2017 13:24:25

Say that, when we type task3 the following should happen:

• first task1 should execute,

How do we do that? Lets find out.

### Dependency Key Operator

As you may or may not know, Sbt is being simplified which means that a lot of ‘exotic operators’ are being dropped and only a few operators are being used and in context of a certain use case can be applied. Some of those operators you already know like ‘:=’, ‘+=’, ‘++=’ and so on.
Notice:

• For SBT < v1.0 users: Because of a technical reason #1444 we still need to use the ‘«=’ operator which is the ‘Dependency Key’ operator for some dependencies. No problem if you know what it is and what it does.
• For SBT >= 1.0 users: Note: please replace ‘«=’ with ‘:=’ as the dependency operator.
Sbt allows us to define the following dependencies between tasks:
• dependsOn: a task depends on another task,
• triggeredBy: a task is triggered by another task,
• runBefore: a task is run before another task

For example, we have the previously defined three tasks, and we also have defined a dependency between them:

When we run task3, which, beside the implementation also has a dependency rule defined as we can see above, the following will happen:

[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 18-feb-2017 13:24:55

The rule task3 := (task3 dependsOn task2 dependsOn task1).value is the new syntax and will be supported by newer versions of sbt.The following syntax will also work but is deprecated:
Note: If you are using SBT 1.0 or higher, please replace ‘«=’ with ‘:=’.

// define a dependency rule using the '<<=' syntax which is deprecated

Lets say we want to define the following, I want task1 to be run and then task3 when I type task1. How do we do that?

Lets try it out:

[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 18-feb-2017 13:42:53
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 18-feb-2017 13:42:55
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 18-feb-2017 13:42:56

Note: As of SBT v1.0, replace ‘«=’ with ‘:=’.
What has happened here is that the rule task3 <<= task3 triggeredBy task1 that uses the deprecated ‘«=’ ‘dependency key’ operator and we must use it because of technical reasons, has as effect that when we type ‘task1’, first ‘task1’ will run and because ‘task1’ runs, ‘task3’ will be triggered causing task3 to also be run.
Lets say, I want to define the following, I want task1 to be run and then task3 when I type ‘task3’, so task1 must run before task3. How do we do that?

Lets try it out:

[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 18-feb-2017 13:45:44
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 18-feb-2017 13:45:45
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed 18-feb-2017 13:45:47

The Sbt documentation has very good documentation on the task graph, but here is the short explanation.
The .value method is used to express a dependency on another task or setting. The .value method is special and may only be called in the argument to :=, +=, or ++=.
The .value method is not a normal Scala method and it is important to understand this. Sbt looks for these .value methods and lifts these operations outside the task body and will all be evaluated first. For developers, working with the .value methods within methods can lead to unexpected behavior because, independent on where the .value call is placed in a method, or even within an if-then-when expression, all .value methods will be lifted outside the body and evaluated first.
Moreover, the evaluation order of all these .value methods are non-determinstic. So what is the best way to work with the .value method to write tasks? There are some options:

1. Inlining .value
2. Not inlining .value

### Inlining ‘.value’

Lets look at the first strategy ‘Inlining .value’. We can inline the .value method by putting all calls to .value at the top of the task like in the following examples. The effect is that the developer cannot make a mistake by using the .value calls inside an if-then-else call. Also you have all calls to .value grouped together at the top of the task, which makes the separation clear. Lets build up to this style of tasks:

// put all .value calls here at the top

// put your task logic down below here
println("Hello")
}

The previous code creates a task task1 that has no dependencies, lets take a look:

[info] content:
[info]
[info] Provided by:
[info] Defined at:
[info]  /Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/build.sbt:7
[info] Delegates:

Lets make task1 dependent on clean:

// put all .value calls here at the top
clean.value

// put your task logic down below here
println("Hello")
}

We now see a dependency on the clean task:

[info] content:
[info]
[info] Provided by:
[info] Defined at:
[info]  /Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/build.sbt:7
[info] Dependencies:
[info]  *:clean
[info] Delegates:

Lets add another dependency, to update for example:

// put all .value calls here at the top
clean.value
val updateReport: UpdateReport = update.value

// put your task logic down below here
println(updateReport.allConfigurations)
}

We now see a second dependency also on the update task:

[info] content:
[info]
[info] Provided by:
[info] Defined at:
[info]  /Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/build.sbt:7
[info] Dependencies:
[info]  *:update
[info]  *:clean
[info] Delegates:

By splitting the code into ‘all calls to .value’ and ‘task logic’, the developer doesn’t have to worry about the evaluation order of all values and mixing the Sbt macro logic and the task logic.

### Not-inlining ‘.value’

Lets look at the second strategy, not-inlining .value methods. Here we will create a very distinct separation between the task logic and the task itself. We’ll put all the logic inside a module that will be called by the task. The dependencies on the values will be part of the build script as a short implementation that will only make .value calls. Lets take a look at this strategy:

def task1Impl(updateReport: UpdateReport, log: Logger, projectName: String, scalaVersion: String): Unit = {
log.info(
s"""
|ProjectName: $projectName |ScalaVersion:$scalaVersion
|Report: ${updateReport.stats} """.stripMargin) } We’ve split the task into method that contains all ‘materialized’ values from the Sbt environment. The developer now doesn’t have to worry about the macro details of Sbt. The sequence evaluation works as expected inside the task1Impl method. The task implementation, which is the line ‘task1 := task1Impl(update.value, streams.value.log, name.value, scalaVersion.value)’, is responsible for creating the dependency on all other tasks an settings an evaluating all values. When all values are evaluated, the task1Impl method will be called. Lets look at the dependencies: sbt:study-sbt> inspect task1 [info] Task: Unit [info] content: [info] [info] Provided by: [info] {file:/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/}study-sbt/*:task1 [info] Defined at: [info] /Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/build.sbt:7 [info] Dependencies: [info] *:scalaVersion [info] *:name [info] *:task1::streams [info] *:update [info] Delegates: [info] *:task1 [info] {.}/*:task1 [info] */*:task1 As expected, we have dependencies with all tasks and settings we have called .value on. A second strategy is to use an Scala object that will be used to be a container for the method. The only downside of this strategy is that the object must be put inside the project directory of your project. Just put it beside your build.properties file. Lets create the file project/Task1Module.scala with the following contents: import sbt.{Logger, UpdateReport} object Task1Module { def task1Impl(updateReport: UpdateReport, log: Logger, projectName: String, scalaVersion: String): String = { s""" |ProjectName:$projectName
|ScalaVersion: $scalaVersion |Report:${updateReport.stats}
""".stripMargin
}
}

This implementation returns a String, in the previous example the method returned nothing. Lets look at the contents of build.sbt:

Please note that I’ve changed task1 a little, it now expects a String to be returned that we can show on the Sbt console with the command show task1:

[info]
[info] ProjectName: study-sbt
[info] ScalaVersion: 2.12.4
[info] Report: Resolve time: 64 ms, Download time: 4 ms, Download size: 0 bytes
[info]

[info] content:
[info]
[info] Provided by:
[info] Defined at:
[info]  /Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/build.sbt:3
[info] Dependencies:
[info]  *:scalaVersion
[info]  *:name
[info]  *:update
[info] Delegates:

As expected, the task still has dependencies to other settings and tasks like before.

### Parallel and sequential task execution

Sbt tries to execute tasks parallel by default. Most tasks can be evaluated in parallel like for example the following example:

lazy val runAll = taskKey[String]("all parallel (the default behavior)")

println("t1")
}

println("t2")
}

println("t3")
}

runAll := {
val t1 = task1.value
val t2 = task2.value
val t3 = task3.value
val all = s"$t1 -$t2 - $t3" println(all) all } When the runAll task is evaluated, Sbt evaluates the tasks in parallel and the value will be stored in the variables. When all tasks have been evaluated, the String van be evaluated and stored in all and lastly it can be printed to the console. The default parallel behavior is a feature of Sbt and cannot easily be disabled. Of cource, any task dependencies on other tasks are maintained when executing the tasks. ### Sequentially executing tasks When it is necessary to evaluate tasks sequentially, for example, when orchestrating a deployment or forcing tasks to be executed sequentially, Sbt v0.13 and later have support for this using the Def.sequential task: lazy val runAllSequential = taskKey[String]("all sequential (forced by use of Def.sequential().value") runAllSequential := Def.sequential(task1, task2, task3).value When the runAllSequential task is evaluated, the tasks will be executed sequentially. This operation is created using Scala macros, which means you can only use Def.sequential as the way we do above. You cannot use it inside another Def.task or Def.taskDyn etc. ### Returning a task based on a setting A task can return a different task based on a value of a setting: lazy val choice = settingKey[String]("The task to execute") choice := "t1" lazy val staticChoice = taskKey[Unit]("") staticChoice := Def.taskDyn { choice.value match { case "t1" => task1.toTask case "t2" => task2.toTask case "t3" => task3.toTask case "all" => runAll.toTask case _ => runAllSequential.toTask } }.value Based on the value of choice, the Def.taskDyn function returns a Task to be evaluated. Please note that the Def.sequential task is referenced by using its key-name which is runAllSequential in this example. You cannot use the Def.sequentialinline. Please note the .value call at the end of Def.taskDyn, it is easy to forget. ### Returning a task based on user input A task can return a different task based on user input: lazy val inputChoice = inputKey[Unit]("") inputChoice := Def.inputTaskDyn { Def.spaceDelimited("choice").parsed.head match { case "t1" => task1.toTask case "t2" => task2.toTask case "t3" => task3.toTask case "all" => runAll.toTask case "seq" => runAllSequential.toTask case unknown => Def.task { streams.value.log.info(s"(inputChoice): Unknown task: '$unknown'")
unknown
}
}
}.evaluated

Based on user input, the Def.inputTaskDyn function returns a Task to be evaluated. Please note that the Def.sequential task is
referenced by using its key-name which is runAllSequential in this example. You cannot use the Def.sequentialinline.
Please note the .evaluated call at the end of Def.inputTaskDyn, it is easy to forget.

### Returning Classes from the classDirectory

Compiled classes are available in classDirectory in Compile setting. The following code can help getting a list of compiled classes as String and also
as a Seq[Class[_]]:

lazy val allClassesInClassDirectory = taskKey[Seq[(String, String)]]("Returns all classes in the classDirectory")
allClassesInClassDirectory := {
import scala.tools.nsc.classpath._
val baseDir: File = (classDirectory in Compile).value
val allClassFilesInClassDir: Seq[File] = (baseDir ** "*.class").get
val relativizer = IO.relativize(baseDir, _: File)
allClassFilesInClassDir
.flatMap(relativizer(_).toSeq)
.map(FileUtils.stripClassExtension)
.map(_.replace("/", "."))
.map(PackageNameUtils.separatePkgAndClassNames)
}

lazy val allObjectsInClassDirectory = taskKey[Seq[(String, String)]]("Returns all objects in the classDirectory")
allObjectsInClassDirectory := {
allClassesInClassDirectory.value.filterNot {
case (_, className) => className.endsWith("$") } } lazy val onlyClassesInClassDirectory = taskKey[Seq[(String, String)]]("Returns only classes in the classDirectory") onlyClassesInClassDirectory := { allClassesInClassDirectory.value.filterNot { case (_, className) => className.contains("$")
}
}

lazy val allClassesInClassDirectoryAsClass = taskKey[Seq[Class[_]]]("Returns all classes in the classDirectory as Class[_]")
allClassesInClassDirectoryAsClass := {
val cp: Seq[File] = (fullClasspath in Compile).value.map(_.data)
val cl = sbt.internal.inc.classpath.ClasspathUtilities.makeLoader(Seq((classDirectory in Compile).value) ++ cp, scalaInstance.value)
allClassesInClassDirectory.value.map {
case (packageName, className) => cl.loadClass(s"$packageName.$className")
}
}

lazy val onlyClassesInClassDirectoryAsClass = taskKey[Seq[Class[_]]]("Returns only classes in the classDirectory as Class[_]")
onlyClassesInClassDirectoryAsClass := {
val cl = sbt.internal.inc.classpath.ClasspathUtilities.makeLoader(Seq((classDirectory in Compile).value), scalaInstance.value)
onlyClassesInClassDirectory.value.map {
case (packageName, className) => cl.loadClass(s"$packageName.$className")
}
}

### Getting annotated classes from the classpath

There are different kinds of annotations in Scala:

• Plain annotations that are only in the code: These can be accessed from macros in the compilation unit where the macro is called where the macro gets access to the AST
• StaticAnnotations that are shared over compilation units: these can be accessed via scala reflection api
• ClassfileAnnotations: these represent annotations stored as java annotations. If you want to access them via the Java Reflection API you have to define them in Java though.

A good read about the subject is: What is the (current) state of scala reflection capabilities, especially wrt annotations, as of version 2.11?
Java annotations are a form of metadata that provides extra information about a program but is not part of the program itself. Annotations have no direct effect on the code they annotate.
Annotations have a number of uses, among them:

• Corrections of encoding:
• Information for the compiler: Annotations can be used by the compiler to detect errors or suppress warnings,
• Show deprecation warnings,
• validation of correction of encodings like the ‘@tailrec’ annotation to check for tail-recursive methods,
• Compile-time and deployment-time processing: Software tools can process annotation information to generate code, property files, and so forth,
• Runtime processing: some annotations are available to be examined at runtime.

As described in A tour of Scala: Annotations, Annotations associate meta-information with definitions. Creating an annotation is quite simple, for example, lets create our own Java Annotation:

package main;

import java.lang.annotation.Retention;
import java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy;

@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
public @interface MyMarker {
String name() default "N/A";
String author() default "Dennis Was Here";
}

Annotatations can be handy, but my default the JVM does some memory-saving optimizations, which means that an annotation is not available at runtime by default. This means that we have
to ‘annotate’ the annotation with an annotation that tells the compiler that the annotation must be retained for runtime use, which is what we want.
The default retention policy is RetentionPolicy.CLASS which means that, by default, annotation information is not retained at runtime:

Annotations are to be recorded in the class file by the compiler but need not be retained by the VM at run time. This is the default behavior.

Annotations are to be recorded in the class file by the compiler and retained by the VM at run time, so they may be read reflectively.

We will use the getClass[AnnotatedClass].getAnnotations method that only returns Java Annotations. To find which classes have been annotated with the MyMarker annotation, we can do the following:

lazy val findMarked = taskKey[Seq[Class[_]]]("Returns the classes that have been annotated with the 'MyMarker' annotation")
findMarked := {
allClassesInClassDirectoryAsClass.value
.filter(_.getDeclaredAnnotations.toList.exists(_.annotationType().getName.contains("MyMarker")))
}

As a side-note: class.getDeclaredAnnotations and class.getAnnotations is that with getDeclaredAnnotations it ignores inherited annotations, so it would only return annotations that are declared on the class itself, the getAnnotations method would return all annotations also inherited ones.
We can also parse the annotation like so:

lazy val parseMarked = taskKey[Seq[(Class[_], String)]]("Returns the classes that have been annotated with the 'MyMarker' annotation with the JSON representation of the fields of the annotation")
parseMarked := {
def getMarkedAnnotationValues(cl: Class[_]): Option[(Class[_], String)] = {
cl.getDeclaredAnnotations.toList.find(_.annotationType().getName.contains("MyMarker")).map { anno =>
val name = anno.annotationType().getMethod("name").invoke(anno)
val author = anno.annotationType().getMethod("author").invoke(anno)
s"""{"name":"$name","author":"$author"}"""
}.map(json => (cl, json))
}
findMarked.value.flatMap(getMarkedAnnotationValues)
}

### Unbound settings and tasks

The keys of settings and tasks don’t have to be bound ie. they dont have to have an implementation. Sbt has operators that can determine whether
or not the keys are bound, and if not, give us a way to choose alternate keys or implementations to use:

lazy val s1 = settingKey[String]("s1")
// there is no implementation of s1
// so the key 's1' is "not bound"
//s1 := "foo"

lazy val s2 = settingKey[String]("s2")
s2 := "bar"

lazy val t1 = taskKey[Unit]("")
t1 := {
// s1 is not bound, so maybeS1 is None
val maybeS1: Option[String] = s1.?.value
assert(maybeS1.isEmpty)

// s1 is not bound, if so, use 'quz' as string
val alternativeValue: String = s1.??("quz").value
assert(alternativeValue == "quz")

// if s1 is not bound, use the value of setting 's2'
val effectiveSetting: String = s1.or(s2).value
assert(effectiveSetting == "bar")
}

### Changing the setting dynamically

A setting can return a different value based on a result for example a value or a setting, or it could be calling another task and based on some
observed effect (a file that exists or something else), change the setting’s value:

lazy val s2 = settingKey[String]("s2")
s2 := "bar"

lazy val s3 = settingKey[String]("s2")
s3 := Def.settingDyn {
s2.value match {
case "bar" => Def.setting("foo")
case _ => Def.setting("bar")
}
}.value

lazy val t1 = taskKey[Unit]("")
t1 := {
println("effective: " + s3.value)
}

Please note the .value call at the end of Def.settingDyn, it is easy to forget. Also note the we are using Def.setting here, until now we only
have been using ‘Def.task’, but that doesn’t work here.

### Scopes

Key -> Value pairs play an important role in Sbt as they let us define settings and settings let us configure our projects and a build is made up out of one or more projects. Keys can easily be configured so that they have a value in a specific Configuration, Task or (Configuration,Task) combination.
Sbt gives us shorthands so easily scope Keys. There are two Scopes ‘Global’ and ‘ThisBuild’.

### ThisBuild Scope

Lets first task about ‘ThisBuild’. When a Build consists of multiple projects, then the Scope ‘ThisBuild’ is handy. For a single project ‘build.sbt’, the Scope ‘ThisBuild’ doesn’t make much sense, as the configuration will apply for the single (default) project.
Say we have a multi-project build.sbt like so:

lazy val project1 = project in file("project1")

lazy val project2 = project in file("project2")

If we want to query settings for a specific project we would type the following in the sbt console:

project1/name
[info] project1

> project1/scalaVersion
[info] 2.12.4

Until now we haven’t seen this syntax. The project name is also part of a Key. So the fully qualified name of a key is really:

Of course we can leave parts of like so:

> project1/scalaVersion
[info] 2.12.4
> project1/test:scalaVersion
[info] 2.12.4
> project1/test:test::scalaVersion
[info] 2.12.4

Now lets say that we want to configure the scalaVersion only for ‘project1’ then we would type:

set scalaVersion in project1 := "2.11.8"
[info] Reapplying settings...
> project1/scalaVersion
[info] 2.11.8

> project2/scalaVersion
[info] 2.12.4

We could also set the scalaVersion for project1 in the build.sbt like so:

lazy val project1 = (project in file("project1")).settings(scalaVersion := "2.12.1")

lazy val project2 = project in file("project2")

Then query:

> project1/scalaVersion
[info] 2.12.1

Now say that we want to set the scalaVersion for all projects in our Build, then we would configure:

> set scalaVersion in ThisBuild := "2.11.8"
[info] Reapplying settings...

> project1/scalaVersion
[info] 2.12.1

> project2/scalaVersion
[info] 2.11.8

Because we haven’t removed the specific configuration that we have set on ‘project1’, that scalaVersion is still ‘2.12.1’ but the setting for ‘project2’ has changed. The scope ‘ThisBuild’ is shorthand for the following definition:

All projects and all configuration and all tasks in the current build only.

### Global Scope

The scope ‘Global’ is handy to define settings that apply to all projects everywhere on your computer or your enterprise, and all of there configurations and all of there tasks. I guess that covers ‘Global’. This scope only makes sense if you create plugins and you want to add the setting to all projects everywhere. If you can remember that Keys are scoped on Axis, so (Project/Configuration:Task) then the difference between the scope ‘ThisBuild’ and ‘Global’ is that for ‘ThisBuild’ the axis looks like ({.}/:) and for Global the axis looks like (/:*).

### Getting user input

There are many ways for getting the users input, for example, using the Parser Combinator libary of sbt, but the following way is also very easy and has
been taken from the AWS Lambda Plugin
example:

lazy val t1 = taskKey[Unit]("")
t1 := {
val name = readInput("What is your name?")
val age = readInput("What is your age?")
streams.value.log.info(s"Hello '$name', you are '$age' years old!")
}

def readInput(prompt: String): String = {
SimpleReader.readLine(s"$prompt\n") getOrElse { val badInputMessage = "Unable to read input" val updatedPrompt = if (prompt.startsWith(badInputMessage)) prompt else s"$badInputMessage\n$prompt" readInput(updatedPrompt) } } console output: sbt:study-sbt> t1 What is your name? Dennis What is your age? 42 [info] Hello 'Dennis', you are '42' years old! ## Parsing user input SBT supports parsing user input as part of a task. To parse use input we use the inputKey eg: import sbt.complete.DefaultParsers._ lazy val hello = inputKey[String]("Hello World") hello := { val name: String = (Space ~> StringBasic).parsed val greeting = s"Hello$name"
streams.value.log.info(greeting)
greeting
}

Sbt uses the sbt-parser-combinator library and parsing user input uses a combination of parsers defined in the
standard library and your own custom parsers. I have a study project that shows how you can use the sbt parser library and how to build your own parsers.
It is possible to reuse the inputTask by another task, to do that you could do the following:

lazy val useHello = taskKey[String]("Using hello")

useHello := {
val result = hello.toTask(" Dennis").value
val msg = s"useHello: '$result'" streams.value.log(msg) msg } Not that we must use a space, as our parser states that the user input should start with a Space as defined in: val name: String = (Space ~> StringBasic).parsed Alternatively we can use Def.spaceDelimited to parse user input which is a default Parser for splitting input into space-separated arguments: lazy val hello = inputKey[String]("Hello World") hello := { val names: Seq[String] = Def.spaceDelimited("Type names").parsed val namesString: String = names.mkString(",") val greeting = s"Hello$namesString"
streams.value.log.info(greeting)
greeting
}

lazy val useHello = taskKey[Unit]("Using hello")

useHello := {
val result = hello.toTask(" a b c d").value
assert(result == "Hello a,b,c,d")
}

### Parsing input using Parsers

When we look at a sbt.internal.util.complete.Parser[T], it basically is a function String => Option[T], it accepts a String to parse and produces a value wrapped in Some if parsing succeeds or None if it fails.
Sbt comes with several built-in parsers defined in sbt.complete.DefaultParsers. Some commonly used built-in parsers are:

• Space, NotSpace, OptSpace, and OptNotSpace: for parsing spaces or non-spaces, required or not.
• StringBasic: for parsing text that may be quoted.
• IntBasic: for parsing a signed Int value.
• Digit and HexDigit: for parsing a single decimal or hexadecimal digit.
• Bool: for parsing a Boolean value

### Tab Completion

Tab completion is a feature of parsers to show examples of values that are possible to input:

lazy val task1 = inputKey[Unit]("")
val names: Seq[String] = Def.spaceDelimited("Type names")
.examples(
"Jean Luc Picard",
"Jonathan Archer",
"Benjamin Sisko",
).parsed

println(names)
}

### Storing previous computed values and use for tab completing

Evaluated tasks can be stored either on disk or in memory and reused for example in Parsers for tab completion:

// task1 will be triggered by some other task
// or will be evaluated manually
task1 := Seq("a", "b", "c", "d")

// independent task, will only load state when stored by
// some other task
lazy val task2 = inputKey[Unit]("")
import sbt.complete.DefaultParsers._
val parser = Defaults.getForParser(task1)((state, maybeSeqString) => {
val strings = maybeSeqString.getOrElse(Seq("a1", "b1", "c1"))
Space ~> StringBasic.examples(strings: _*)
})
val result: String = parser.parsed
println(result)
}
}.evaluated

// see: https://gitter.im/sbt/sbt/archives/2015/08/07
// ==> And the two are a pair. I think getForParser/keepAs are in memory and loadForParser/storeAs is in disk

### Common SBT Commands

The following sbt commands are handy to know. Of course you can create your own tasks and query for which tasks are available
by typing sbt tasks -V:

sbt help                                     # Prints a help summary.
sbt about                                    # Displays basic information about sbt and the build.
sbt tasks                                    # Displays the main tasks defined directly or indirectly for the current project.
sbt tasks -V                                 # Displays all tasks
sbt settings                                 # Displays the main settings defined directly or indirectly for the current project.
sbt settings -V                              # Displays all settings
sbt projects                                 # List the names of available builds and the projects defined in those builds.
sbt project                                  # Displays the name of the current project.
sbt project /                                # Changes to the initial project.
sbt project name                             # Changes to the project with the provided name.
sbt run                                      # Runs a main class, passing along arguments provided on the command line
sbt runMain com.github.dnvriend.HelloWorld   # Runs the main class selected by the first argument, passing the remaining arguments to the main method.
sbt console                                  # Starts the Scala interpreter with the project classes on the classpath.
sbt compile                                  # Compiles sources.
sbt clean                                    # Deletes files produced by the build, such as generated sources, compiled classes, and task caches.
sbt test                                     # Executes all tests.
sbt testOnly PersonTest                      # Executes the tests provided as arguments or all tests if no arguments are provided.
sbt ";clean;compile;run"                     # Runs the specified commands.

### SourceGenerators

The sourceGenerators setting defines a list of
tasks that generate sources. A source generation task should generate sources in a subdirectory of sourceManaged and return a sequence of files generated.
The key to add the task to is called sourceGenerators. Because we want to add the task, and not the value after its execution we use taskValue instead of the usual value. It should be scoped according to whether the generated files are main (Compile) or test (Test) sources.
For example, lets say we want to generate an BuildInfo.scala file that contains information about our build. We can do the following:

• create a task ‘getBuildInfo’ that aggregates information about our build,
• create a task ‘makmakeBuildInfo’ that will create the ‘Information.scala’ file in the sourceManaged dir and stores the
information that has been aggregated by ‘getBuildInfo’ into that file
• create a ‘main.Main’ console application that uses the ‘BuildInfo.scala’ file
• run the console application
lazy val getCommitSha = taskKey[String]("Returns the current git commit SHA")

getCommitSha := {
}

lazy val getCurrentDate = taskKey[String]("Get current date")

getCurrentDate := {
new java.text.SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-HH-mm'T'hh:MM:ss.SSSSXX").format(new java.util.Date())
}

lazy val getBuildInfo = taskKey[String]("Get information about the build")

getBuildInfo := {
s"""Map(
|  "name" -> "${name.value}", | "organization" -> "${organization.value}",
|  "version" -> "${version.value}", | "date" -> "${getCurrentDate.value}",
|  "commit" -> "${getCommitSha.value}", | "scalaVersion" -> "${scalaVersion.value}",
|  "libraryDependencies" -> "${libraryDependencies.value}" |) """.stripMargin } lazy val makeBuildInfo = taskKey[Seq[File]]("Makes the BuildInfo.scala file") makeBuildInfo := { val resourceDir: File = (sourceManaged in Compile).value val configFile: File = new File(resourceDir, "BuildInfo.scala") val content = s""" |package build | |object BuildInfo { | val info: Map[String, String] =${getBuildInfo.value}
|}
""".stripMargin
IO.write(configFile, content)
Seq(configFile)
}

sourceGenerators in Compile += makeBuildInfo.taskValue

We need a console application to test it with so put the following class in ‘src/main/scala/main’:

package main

object Main extends App {
println(build.BuildInfo.info)
}

Run the application with ‘sbt run’.

### ResourceGenerators

The resourceGenerators setting defines a list of
tasks that generate resources. A resource generation task should generate resources in a subdirectory of resourceManaged
and return a sequence of files generated.
The key to add the task to is called resourceGenerators. Because we want to add the task, and not the value after its execution,
we use taskValue instead of the usual value. It should be scoped according to whether the generated files are main (Compile)
or test (Test) resources.
For example, lets say that we want to get the git commit hash of our project and save it in a Typesafe config file named
‘version.config’ and put it in the ‘resourceManaged’ directory, we can do the following:

• create a task ‘gitCommitSha’ that queries ‘git’ and parses the response and returns the git hash as a String
• create a task ‘makeVersionConfig’ that will create the ‘version.config’ file in the resourceManaged dir and stores the
git commit hash in that file
• create a ‘main.Main’ console application that uses the ‘version.config’ file
• run the console application
Lets first create the two tasks, you can put the following in ‘build.sbt’:
// we need the typesafe-config library
libraryDependencies += "com.typesafe" % "config" % "1.3.1"

// 'gitCommitSha' will query 'git' for the SHA of HEAD
lazy val gitCommitSha = taskKey[String]("Returns the current git commit SHA")

gitCommitSha := {
}

// 'makeVersionConfig' will create the 'version.config' file
lazy val makeVersionConfig = taskKey[Seq[File]]("Makes a version config file")

makeVersionConfig := {
println("Creating makeVersionConfig")
val resourceDir: File = (resourceManaged in Compile).value
val configFile: File = new File(resourceDir, "version.config")
val gitCommitValue: String = gitCommitSha.value
val content = s"""commit-hash="$gitCommitValue"""" IO.write(configFile, content) Seq(configFile) } // add the 'makeVersionConfig' Task to the list of resourceGenerators. // resourceGenerators is of type: SettingKey[Seq[Task[Seq[File]]]] which // means that we can add, well, resourceGenerators to it, // like our 'makeVersionConfig' which is a resourceGenerator. resourceGenerators in Compile += makeVersionConfig.taskValue We need a console application to test it with so put the following class in ‘src/main/scala/main’: package main import com.typesafe.config.ConfigFactory import scala.io.Source object Main extends App { val config = ConfigFactory.parseURL(getClass.getResource("/version.config")) val hashFromConfig = config.getString("commit-hash") val versionConfigFileAsString = Source.fromURL(getClass.getResource("/version.config")).mkString println( s""" |versionConfigFile:$versionConfigFileAsString
|hashFromConfig: $hashFromConfig """.stripMargin) } Run the application with ‘sbt run’. ## Server, Client, Shell Sbt server is a feature of sbt 1.x that adds network access to a single running instance of Sbt. This allows multiple clients to connect to a single session of Sbt. The primary use case is tooling integration such as editors and IDEs. There are three new commands: • sbt shell: provides an interactive prompt from which commands can be run • sbt client 127.0.0.1:: provides an interactive prompt for which commands can be run on a server • sbt startServer: starts the sbt server if it has not been started. By default, sbt interactive mode is started when no commands are provided on the CLI. The interactive shell is also started when the shell command is invoked with the command sbt shell. The sbt shell command does not only launch an interactive shell, but it also launches the sbt server. When you just type sbt -Dsbt.server.autostart=false, the server is not started but the interactive shell. When you start an sbt session by typing sbt, the interactive shell and sbt server is started. The server will output the port its running on:$ sbt
[info] Set current project to study-sbt (in build file:/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/)
[info] sbt server started at 127.0.0.1:5829

The server is running on ‘127.0.0.1:5829’.
When we start a new terminal session and from an arbitrary directory location on your system type: sbt client 127.0.0.1:5829, we get the following output on the server:

sbt:study-sbt> [info] new client connected from: 50745

and we get the following output on the client:

$sbt client 127.0.0.1:5829 [info] Loading settings from idea.sbt,sbt-updates.sbt ... [info] Loading global plugins from /Users/dennis/.sbt/1.0/plugins [info] Updating {file:/Users/dennis/.sbt/1.0/plugins/}global-plugins... [info] Done updating. [info] Loading project definition from /Users/dennis/projects/project [info] Updating {file:/Users/dennis/projects/project/}projects-build... [info] Done updating. [info] Set current project to projects (in build file:/Users/dennis/projects/) client on port 5829 ChannelAcceptedEvent(channel-1) We can now type commands in the client, but please note that input like ‘show name’ (the first thing I did) only shows up on the server as output. The command exit closes the connection as expected. ### Forking processes Sbt can fork processes with the Fork API. Lets fork the following application which is in src/main/scala/main/Main.scala: package main object Main extends App { println("Hello World!: " + args.toList) } Now lets look at our build: val task1 = taskKey[Unit]("") task1 := { def classpathOption(classpath: Seq[File]): Seq[String] = { "-classpath" :: Path.makeString(classpath) :: Nil } val cp: Seq[File] = (fullClasspath in Compile).value.map(_.data) val mainClass: String = "main.Main" val arguments: Seq[String] = Seq("Hello World!") val outputStrategy = StdoutOutput // val outputStrategy = LoggedOutput(streams.value.log) val config: ForkOptions = ForkOptions( javaHome.value, Some(outputStrategy), // StdOutput, LoggedOutput Vector(), Some(baseDirectory.value), javaOptions.value.toVector, connectInput.value, envVars.value ) val fullArguments: Seq[String] = classpathOption(cp) ++ Seq(mainClass) ++ arguments // Process is being executed val exitValue = Fork.java(config, fullArguments) } Fork just calls the ‘java’ command just like you would on the CLI. As you know, you can put all kinds of arguments to make java work and a full command would be something like: java -classpath <all jars here> main.Main <args here> Sbt has abstracted such calls away for us and exposes it as the Fork API. We have to do some setup to make it work like: • Determine what the main class is (main.Main) • Determine what the arguments for the main class is (arguments) • Determine what the classpath is (the part after -classpath) and must be placed before ‘main.Main ’, • Determine how to log the output of our forked process (to StdOutput or the Sbt Logger) • Determine javaHome, boot classes (Vector()), the baseDir to use, the javaOptions and environment variables In short, we are setting up a fully configured JVM instance and everything must be just right to launch our ‘main.Main’ class. Finally, we can make the call to Fork.java(config, fullArguments) and it is a blocking call to that JVM. The result is an exitValue of type Int. The dependency of this task is the following and as expected we see all tasks and settings we call before we can Fork our process: sbt:study-sbt> inspect task1 [info] Task: Unit [info] content: [info] [info] Provided by: [info] {file:/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/}study-sbt/*:task1 [info] Defined at: [info] /Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/build.sbt:2 [info] Dependencies: [info] *:connectInput [info] *:envVars [info] *:javaHome [info] *:javaOptions [info] compile:fullClasspath [info] *:baseDirectory [info] Delegates: [info] *:task1 [info] {.}/*:task1 [info] */*:task1 ### Using a ScalaRun ‘runner’ The previous example when we forked a program can become much shorter when we use the Keys.runner which is implemented in Defaults.runnerTask and returns a ScalaRun, ‘a fully configured runner implementation used to run a main class’ like the main.Main class for example. The task will become much shorter: val runnerToUse: ScalaRun = runner.value Run.run( "main.Main", (fullClasspath in Compile).value.map(_.data), Seq("hello", "world"), streams.value.log)(runnerToUse) Note that we can put the runner in implicit scope if we wish because it is just a generic runner that can be injected anywhere we like. Here I’m passing it explicitly to Run.run(...)(runnerToUse) to point out the use case. If we look at the dependencies then we see the following: sbt:study-sbt> inspect task1 [info] Task: Unit [info] content: [info] [info] Provided by: [info] {file:/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/}study-sbt/*:task1 [info] Defined at: [info] /Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/build.sbt:2 [info] Dependencies: [info] *:task1::streams [info] compile:fullClasspath [info] *:runner [info] Delegates: [info] *:task1 [info] {.}/*:task1 [info] */*:task1 ### Compiling a file in a task The following example shows how to create a task that will create a file, compile the file and runs that file. Please note that is contains some code, and most of the code are really just two ‘no-operation’ classes necessary for the compiler. The example shows how to create a task, that task sets up some resources that we need. Good practice is to get all the sbt values at the top of your code and then, when all calls to .value are done, begin with your logic. This way the flow of execution works as expected. Compiling files is not trivial, even when using Sbt’s abstraction and APIs. Still, in just 100 lines we create a file, compile it and run it which is not bad. val task1 = taskKey[Unit]("") task1 := { val compilers = Keys.compilers.value val classpath: Seq[File] = (fullClasspath in Compile).value.map(_.data) val outputDir: File = (classDirectory in Compile).value val options: Seq[String] = (scalacOptions in Compile).value val inputs: xsbti.compile.Inputs = (compileInputs in Compile in compile).value val cache: xsbti.compile.GlobalsCache = inputs.setup().cache() val log = streams.value.log implicit val runnerToUse: ScalaRun = runner.value val targetDir: File = target.value val fileToCompile: File = targetDir / "Engage.scala" val maxErrors: Int = 1000 // create the Engage.scala file IO.createDirectory(targetDir) IO.write(fileToCompile, """object Engage extends App { println("Engage!") }""") // compile the file compilers.scalac() match { case compiler: sbt.internal.inc.AnalyzingCompiler => compileSingleFile( compiler, fileToCompile, classpath, outputDir, options, maxErrors, cache, noChanges, noopCallback, log ) case _ => sys.error("Expected a 'sbt.internal.inc.AnalyzingCompiler' compiler") } // lets run 'Engage' runSingleFile("Engage", classpath, Seq.empty, log) } def runSingleFile(fqcn: String, classpath: Seq[File], options: Seq[String], log: Logger )(implicit scalaRun: ScalaRun): scala.util.Try[Unit] = { log.info(s"Running: single file:$fqcn")
Run.run(fqcn, classpath, options, log).map { _ =>
log.info(s"Successfully executed: $fqcn") } recover { case t: Throwable => log.error(s"Failure running:$fqcn, reason: ${t.getMessage}") throw t } } def compileSingleFile( compiler: sbt.internal.inc.AnalyzingCompiler, fileToCompile: File, classpath: Seq[File], outputDir: File, options: Seq[String], maxErrors: Int, cache: xsbti.compile.GlobalsCache, dependencyChanges: xsbti.compile.DependencyChanges, analysisCallback: xsbti.AnalysisCallback, log: sbt.internal.util.ManagedLogger): Unit = { log.info(s"Compiling a single file:$fileToCompile")

compiler.apply(
Array(fileToCompile),
dependencyChanges,
classpath.toArray,
outputDir,
options.toArray,
analysisCallback,
maxErrors,
cache,
log
)
}

lazy val noChanges = new xsbti.compile.DependencyChanges {
def isEmpty = true
def modifiedBinaries = Array()
def modifiedClasses = Array()
}

lazy val noopCallback = new xsbti.AnalysisCallback {
override def startSource(source: File): Unit = {}
override def mainClass(sourceFile: File, className: String): Unit = {}
override def apiPhaseCompleted(): Unit = {}
override def enabled(): Boolean = false
override def binaryDependency(onBinaryEntry: File, onBinaryClassName: String, fromClassName: String, fromSourceFile: File, context: xsbti.api.DependencyContext): Unit = {}
override def generatedNonLocalClass(source: File, classFile: File, binaryClassName: String, srcClassName: String): Unit = {}
override def problem(what: String, pos: xsbti.Position, msg: String, severity: xsbti.Severity, reported: Boolean): Unit = {}
override def dependencyPhaseCompleted(): Unit = {}
override def classDependency(onClassName: String, sourceClassName: String, context: xsbti.api.DependencyContext): Unit = {}
override def generatedLocalClass(source: File, classFile: File): Unit = {}
override def api(sourceFile: File, classApi: xsbti.api.ClassLike): Unit = {}
override def usedName(className: String, name: String, useScopes: java.util.EnumSet[xsbti.UseScope]): Unit = {}
}

### Getting Types from the Scala Type System by String

It is possible, but not encouraged, to get types from the scala Type System by String. Normally we would do something like the following to get a reference to List[Int]:

scala> import scala.reflect.runtime.universe._
import scala.reflect.runtime.universe._

scala> typeOf[List[Int]]
res0: reflect.runtime.universe.Type = scala.List[Int]

We could also ‘ask the compiler’ to create a TypeTag for us and use the tpe method to get to the type:

scala> implicitly[TypeTag[List[Int]]]
res1: reflect.runtime.universe.TypeTag[List[Int]] = TypeTag[scala.List[Int]]

scala> res1.tpe
res2: reflect.runtime.universe.Type = scala.List[Int]

The downside of this approach is that we must give the type as a literal like List[Int], and when working with SBT, this is not always possible.
When we break the problem down a bit, would it be possible to construct a TypeTag and give it two pieces of information? For example, I want to get a TypeTag for a scala.collection.immutable.List that must be constructed with a scala.Int, shouldn’t be that hard, or is it?
Lets create the following object in project/CustomLoader.scala. We will import some packages from scala.reflect that interfers with the build.sbt default imports:

import scala.reflect.api
import scala.reflect.api.{TypeCreator, Universe}
import scala.reflect.runtime.universe._

def createTypeTagForST(simpleTypeName: String, classLoader: Option[ClassLoader] = None): TypeTag[_] = {
val currentMirror = classLoader
.map(cl => scala.reflect.runtime.universe.runtimeMirror(cl))
.getOrElse(scala.reflect.runtime.currentMirror)
val typSym = currentMirror.staticClass(simpleTypeName)
val tpe = internal.typeRef(NoPrefix, typSym, List.empty)
val ttag = TypeTag(currentMirror, new TypeCreator {
override def apply[U <: Universe with Singleton](m: api.Mirror[U]): U#Type = {
assert(m == currentMirror, s"TypeTag[$tpe] defined in$currentMirror cannot be migrated to $m.") tpe.asInstanceOf[U#Type] } }) ttag } def createTypeTagForHKT(higherKindedTypeName: String = "scala.collection.immutable.List", parameterSymbol: String = "scala.Int", classLoader: Option[ClassLoader] = None): TypeTag[_] = { val currentMirror = classLoader .map(cl => scala.reflect.runtime.universe.runtimeMirror(cl)) .getOrElse(scala.reflect.runtime.currentMirror) val typSym = currentMirror.staticClass(higherKindedTypeName) val paramSym = currentMirror.staticClass(parameterSymbol) val tpe = internal.typeRef(NoPrefix, typSym, List(paramSym.selfType)) val ttag = TypeTag(currentMirror, new TypeCreator { override def apply[U <: Universe with Singleton](m: api.Mirror[U]): U#Type = { assert(m == currentMirror, s"TypeTag[$tpe] defined in $currentMirror cannot be migrated to$m.")
tpe.asInstanceOf[U#Type]
}
})
ttag
}
}

We have two methods in our ‘CustomLoader’, one method that creates a TypeTag for a SimpleType like ‘scala.Int’ and another that creates TypeTags for higher kinded types like a List[Int]. The only price we pay is that we loose typing information so the return type is a TypeTag of anything so TypeTag[_]
Lets use it. Back in our build.sbt, lets create a task that will create both a higher kinded type and a simple type:

lazy val task1 = taskKey[Unit]("Load simple types and higher kinded types")
import scala.reflect.runtime.universe._
val listOfIntTypeTag: TypeTag[_] = CustomLoader.createTypeTagForHKT("scala.collection.immutable.List", "scala.Int")
assert(listOfIntTypeTag.toString == "TypeTag[List[Int]]")

val intTypeTag: TypeTag[_] = CustomLoader.createTypeTagForST("scala.Int")
assert(intTypeTag.toString == "TypeTag[Int]")
}

We can optionally provide a classloader that can load our custom types for example a main.Person. We must first have a task that can provide such a classloader on demand:

val scalaInstance: ScalaInstance = Keys.scalaInstance.value
val fullClasspath: Seq[File] = (Keys.fullClasspath in Compile).value.map(_.data)
val classDirectory: File = (Keys.classDirectory in Compile).value
val classpath = Seq(classDirectory) ++ fullClasspath
cl
}

This classloader can be used in the following task in where we will load a case class main.Person that is in our unmanaged source directory src/main/scala/main/Person.scala:

package main

import scala.annotation.StaticAnnotation

case class Named(name: String = "", age: String = "") extends StaticAnnotation

@Named(name = "Dennis", age = "43")
@MyMarker()
case class Person(name: String, age: Int)

The class has been annotated with both a Java and a Scala annotation:

package main;

import java.lang.annotation.Retention;
import java.lang.annotation.RetentionPolicy;

@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
public @interface MyMarker {
String name() default "N/A";
String author() default "Dennis Was Here";
}

Lets get a TypeTag from it and query it for information. Please note that we are using the getFullClassLoader task and giving it to the CustomLoader so it can resolve all types:

import scala.reflect.runtime.universe._
val cl = getFullClassLoader.value
val personTypeTag: TypeTag[_] = CustomLoader.createTypeTagForST("main.Person", Option(cl))
assert(personTypeTag.toString == "TypeTag[Person]")
assert(personTypeTag.tpe.typeSymbol.annotations.mkString(",") == """main.Named("Dennis", "43"),main.MyMarker""")

val namedAnnotationTypeTag: TypeTag[_] = CustomLoader.createTypeTagForST("main.Named", Option(cl))
assert(namedAnnotationTypeTag.toString == "TypeTag[Named]")

val maybeNamedAnnotation: Option[Annotation] = personTypeTag.tpe.typeSymbol.annotations.find(_.tree.tpe =:= namedAnnotationTypeTag.tpe)

assert(maybeNamedAnnotation.isDefined)
}

### Settings Initialization

You know by now that an Sbt build consist of one or more project and those projects consists of settings and tasks. The best content on how this process works is described in the Sbt documentation – Settings Initialization which is a 10 minute read.
The process of initialization consists of two steps:

1. Collect all settings from defined locations
2. Apply all settings in a predetermined order

### 1. Collecting settings

Settings are collected from predefined locations:

• User-level project (~/.sbt/):
• Load any plugins defined in ~/.sbt/<version>/plugins/*.sbt
• Load any plugins defined in ~/.sbt/<version>/plugins/*.scala
• Load all settings defined in ~/.sbt/<version>/*.sbt
• Load all settings defined in ~/.sbt/<version>/*.scala)
• SBT Project-level:
• Load any plugins defined in project/plugins.sbt
• Load any plugins defined in project/project/*.scala
• Load any settings defined in project/*.sbt
• Load any settings defined in project/*.scala
• Load project *.sbt files build.sbt and friends.

The result of all this resolving is a sequence of Seq[Setting[_]] that must be ordered and thus there are settings that will override other settings.

### 2. Apply settings in a predefined order

The settings collected in the previous step, which is a Seq[Setting[_]] must be ordered. There is a predefined way to order these settings and therefor settings will be override other settings. The sequence is:

1. All AutoPlugin settings
2. All settings defined in project/Build.scala
3. All settings defined in the user directory ~/.sbt/<version>/*.sbt
4. All local configurations build.sbt
The effectiv result is a task graph that is used to execute the build.

### Commands

There are several definition of ‘a command’ when you are working with SBT. When working with Sbt, the things you type into the console are called ‘commands’. These commands-you-type most often trigger a ‘task’ or a ‘setting’ like for example ‘name’ that will evaluate the setting ‘name’. Besides a ‘setting’ or a ‘task’ there is a third thing that can be executed and that thing is called a ‘command’.
There is a technical distinction in sbt between tasks, which are ‘inside’ the build definition, and commands, which manipulate the build definition itself. Most often it is not necessary to create commands because most activities can be implemented by chaining multiple tasks.
To recap, a command looks similar to a task, in that they are both a named operation that can be executed from the console, and they both can execute arbitraty code. The main difference is that a command takes as a parameter, ‘the entire state of the build’, which is represented by State, and it must compute a new State. So a command’s responsibility is to compute a new build state and a task’s responsibility is to execute tasks for example, do some work. So ‘a command computes state’ and a task ‘does the work’ ie. creates the side-effects necessary when working with a build tool.
Lets create an helloworld command that uses the Command.command method that construct a no-argument command with the given name and effect:

lazy val hello = Command.command("hello") { state =>
println("Hello there!")
state
}

commands += hello

After we’ve added the hello command to the list of commands of the build, we can it by typing hello:

sbt:study-sbt> hello
Hello there!

Lets look at some other ways to construct commands like Command.args that constructs a multi-argument command with the given name, tab completion display and effect:

val helloAll = Command.args("helloAll", "<name>") { (state: State, args: Seq[String]) =>
println(s"Hi $args") state } commands += helloAll We can execute it with: sbt:study-sbt> helloAll a b c d e Hi List(a, b, c, d, e) The previous command accepts multiple arguments, hence the argument list, bust we can command that accepts only a single argument with the method Command.single that constructs a single-argument command with the given name and effect: def hello = Command.single("hello") { (state: State, input: String) => println(s"Hello$input")
state
}

commands += hello

The output is:

sbt:study-sbt> hello foo bar baz
Hello foo bar baz

We can also get information from the current state:

def printState = Command.command("printState") { state =>
import state._
println(definedCommands.size + " registered commands")
println("commands to run: " + show(remainingCommands))
println()
println("original arguments: " + show(configuration.arguments))
println("base directory: " + configuration.baseDirectory)
println()
println("sbt version: " + configuration.provider.id.version)
println("Scala version (for sbt): " + configuration.provider.scalaProvider.version)
println()

val extracted = Project.extract(state)
import extracted._
println("Current build: " + currentRef.build)
println("Current project: " + currentRef.project)
println("Original setting count: " + session.original.size)
println("Session setting count: " + session.append.size)
state
}

def show[T](s: Seq[T]) = {
s.map("'" + _ + "'").mkString("[", ", ", "]")
}
commands += printState

When run with the following command ;printState;clean;run, we get the following output:

sbt:study-sbt> ;printState;clean;run
56 registered commands
commands to run: ['Exec(clean, None, Some(CommandSource(console0)))', 'Exec(run, None, Some(CommandSource(console0)))', 'Exec(shell, None, None)']

original arguments: []
base directory: /Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt

sbt version: 1.0.3
Scala version (for sbt): 2.12.4

Current build: file:/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/
Current project: study-sbt
Original setting count: 644
Session setting count: 0

### Commands, Settings, Tasks and state

Commands and Tasks use the State object to store temporary values that must be passed between commands or between a command and tasks, command to task, one-way only within a single session without reloading the project. For example:

lazy val msg = settingKey[String]("")

lazy val ping = taskKey[Unit]("")
ping := {
val buildState = state.value
println(buildState.get(msg.key))
buildState.put(msg.key, "ping")
}

lazy val pong = Command.command("pong") { state =>
println(state.get(msg.key))
state.put(msg.key, "pong")
}

commands += pong

To create a ping/pong, the Command has to save a value into the state attributes, and the task has to save a value in the session, by means of the keepAs method:

lazy val msg = settingKey[String]("")

lazy val ping = taskKey[String]("")
ping in Global := {
val buildState = state.value
// command to task (read from state attributes)
println(buildState.get(msg.key))
"ping"
}
// store in session
ping in Global := (ping in Global).keepAs(ping).value

lazy val pong = Command.command("pong") { state =>
val extracted = Project.extract(state)
val session = state.get(sessionVars).get
println(session.get(ping in Global))
state.put(msg.key, "pong")
}

commands += pong

State and also be persisted using the storeAs method:

import sjsonnew.BasicJsonProtocol._
import scala.compat.Platform

lazy val msg = settingKey[String]("")
lazy val ping = taskKey[String]("")
ping in Global := {
val buildState = state.value
println("ping: " + buildState.get(msg.key))
"ping" + Platform.currentTime
}
// store in session
ping in Global := (ping in Global).storeAs(ping).value

lazy val pong = Command.command("pong") { state =>
// get persisted state, pass the state, get a new state back
val (st, result) = SessionVar.loadAndSet((ping in Global).scopedKey, state)
println("pong: " + result)
// set attribute
st.put(msg.key, "pong: " + Platform.currentTime)
}

commands += pong

Lets create a simple ‘snake’ game. First, the snake is not found. You have three commands, ‘snake’, that just prints a snake and exists simply to be able to store information in the session, alterSnake that reads the session for the key in a scope, hence ScopedKey, so (snake in Global) would be a ScopedKey, ‘a snake (key) in Global scope’, and persists to disk a session variable using this task key. Only ‘task keys’ can be used to persist Session values. The createSnake ‘creates’ a snake by persisting the head of the snake to a session value. This session value can be read by other tasks or commands. So alternatively, the sessionVars can be used to communicate both ways between tasks and commands using the same key; the Task Key and the scope that must be used is Global.

import sjsonnew.BasicJsonProtocol._
lazy val snake = taskKey[String]("")
snake in Global := {
val log = streams.value.log
val str = SessionVar.load((snake in Global).scopedKey, state.value)
log.info(str)
str
}

lazy val alterSnake = Command.command("alterSnake") { state =>
val maybeSnake = SessionVar.load((snake in Global).scopedKey, state)
maybeSnake.foreach { body =>
SessionVar.persist((snake in Global).scopedKey, state, body + "<")
}
state.log.info(maybeSnake.getOrElse("Snake is still hidden"))
state
}

lazy val createSnake = taskKey[Unit]("")
createSnake := {
SessionVar.persist((snake in Global).scopedKey, state.value, "-:")
}

commands += alterSnake

A more complex example is below:

import sjsonnew.BasicJsonProtocol._
// setting key can only be changed with a 'reload'
// and reloading is something we want to avoid
lazy val personName = settingKey[String]("The name of a person")
personName := "Dennis"

lazy val personAge = settingKey[Int]("The age of a person")
personAge := 42

lazy val savePersonName = taskKey[String]("Saves the person name")
savePersonName := {
personName.?.value.getOrElse("Unknown")
}
savePersonName := savePersonName.storeAs(savePersonName).value

lazy val savePersonAge = taskKey[Int]("Saves the person age")
savePersonAge := personAge.?.value.getOrElse(0)
savePersonAge := savePersonAge.storeAs(savePersonAge).value

lazy val printPerson = taskKey[Unit]("Prints person")
printPerson := {
val log = streams.value.log
val buildState = state.value
val maybeName = personName.?.value
val maybeAge = personAge.?.value
val name = maybeName.orElse(SessionVar.load(savePersonName.scopedKey, buildState)).getOrElse("Unknown")
val age = maybeAge.orElse(SessionVar.load(savePersonAge.scopedKey, buildState)).getOrElse(-1)
println(s"Person from state attributes: Person(${buildState.get(personName.key)},${buildState.get(personAge.key)})")
println(s"Person from settings, then session else unknown: Person($name,$age)")
}

lazy val savePerson = taskKey[Unit]("Gets the value of Pi")
savePerson := {
val buildState = state.value
val log = streams.value.log
val maybeName = personName.?.value
val maybeAge = personAge.?.value
val name = maybeName.orElse(SessionVar.load(savePersonName.scopedKey, buildState)).getOrElse("Unknown")
val age = maybeAge.orElse(SessionVar.load(savePersonAge.scopedKey, buildState)).getOrElse(-1)
log.info(s"Person from settings: Person($name,$age)")

// is not used, just printed
println("Name from saved session state:" + SessionVar.load(savePersonName.scopedKey, buildState))
println("Age from saved session state:" + SessionVar.load(savePersonAge.scopedKey, buildState))

// store the information in the session vars
// note that sessionVars uses scopedKey of Task
// session vars's context are Task values...
val vars: SessionVar.Map = buildState.get(sessionVars).get // note the .get
// store the name and age in the session
vars.put(savePersonName, "Mr Bean")
vars.put(savePersonAge, 50)
log.info("Contents of the session vars: " + vars)

println(s"Person from state attributes: Person(${buildState.get(personName.key)},${buildState.get(personAge.key)})")

// store the name and age in the state attribute map
// note that the attribute map of State uses the AttributeKey, which is the setting
val newState = buildState.put(personName.key, "Jean Luc Picard")
.put(personAge.key, Int.MinValue)

println(s"Person from state attributes after change: Person(${newState.get(personName.key)},${newState.get(personAge.key)})")

// the thing is, newState is gone now, therefore we have commands...
}

def loadPerson = Command.command("loadPerson") { state =>
val extracted = Project.extract(state)
// note that the extracted project settings are 'immutable', we don't want to reload
println("Get the name from a setting: " + extracted.get(personName))
println("Get the age from a setting: " + extracted.get(personAge))

// session variables
println("Contents of the session vars: " + state.get(sessionVars))
// we can reuse the 'age' key, by putting a value in the mutable attribute map,
// which doesn't need a 'reload' to be changed, just a call to 'put' would be enough
println("Get name from a previous command from the (state) attribute map: " + state.get(savePersonName.key))
println("Get age from a previous command from the (state) attribute map: " + state.get(savePersonName.key))

// load session vars
// note that session vars load values that are the result
// of tasks, so the keys are of tasks
val maybeName = SessionVar.load(savePersonName.scopedKey, state)
val maybeAge = SessionVar.load(savePersonAge.scopedKey, state)
println(s"Person from loaded session vars (task keys): $maybeName,$maybeAge")
println(s"Person from state attributes (setting keys): Person(${state.get(personName.key)},${state.get(personAge.key)})")

// note that the attribute state
// are attribute keys and are settings keys
state
.put(personName.key, "from-command")
.put(personAge.key, Int.MaxValue)
}

The previous code shows a setting, a command and a task. The setting must be used as a definition of a value, like Pi. This is a stable value for the session. Granted, Pi can be changed by typing set pi := 6.28 or by changing the value in build.sbt, but this needs a reload of the session, and basically you get a new session. So settings can be seen as ‘immutable’ values, in a single session at least. The mutable part of a session is the State’s attributeMap that can be accessed by a Command or a Task.
Both a Command and a Task can access the State object. A Command gets a reference to State, and can directly act upon it. The Task must get a reference to the state with the task state.value, and can then operate on it. On State you can call among others the methods get(key): Option[T], put(key, value): State, remove(key): State, update(key)(f: Option[A] => B): State and has(key): Boolean to operate on the attribute map. This is one way a command can change the behavior of tasks without needing to reload the project.
A second way to store state is by means of the methods keepAs and storeAs methods on a Task. These values are are stored as session variables and can be persisted.

### Commands construction

A command needs several things to be constructed, depending on the construction method of course. The fully complete list is:

• The syntax used by the user to invoke the command,
• Tab completion for the syntax,
• A parser to turn the input into a data structure,
• The action to perform using the parsed data structure
• The action transforms the build State object,
• Help to provide to the user
val action: (State, T) => State = ...
val parser: State => Parser[T] = ...
val command: Command = Command("name")(parser)(action)

## Serializing Typesafe Configuration to JSON

It is possible to serialize Typesafe configuration to JSON. This can be handy when integrating with other tools that need JSON as input or even YAML. We need to add a dependency on the Typesafe Configuration library. Just create a new file project/dependencies.sbt and put the following in the file:

libraryDependencies += "com.typesafe" % "config" % "1.3.1"
lazy val task1 = taskKey[String]("Serializing Typesafe Config to JSON")

import com.typesafe.config._
val conf: Config = ConfigFactory.parseString(
"""
| akka {
|    boolean_one = true
|    boolean_two = on
|    list_of_string = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
|    number = 1
|    timeout = 10ms
|    name = "dennis"
|    person = {
|      name = "dennis"
|      age = 42
|    }
| }
""".stripMargin)

val output: String = conf.root().render(ConfigRenderOptions.concise())
val json = """{"akka":{"number":1,"boolean_two":"on","person":{"name":"dennis","age":42},"name":"dennis","boolean_one":true,"timeout":"10ms","list_of_string":[1,2,3,4,5]}}"""
assert(output == json)
output
}

From this converted Typesafe Config, we can generate YAML by means of the circe-yaml library which translates SnakeYAML‘s AST into circe‘s AST. It enables parsing YAML 1.1 documents into circe’s Json AST and using Circe to parse JSON and write YAML documents.
Add the following to project/dependencies.sbt:

libraryDependencies += "io.circe" %% "circe-yaml" % "0.6.1"

We can now create a second task that uses the first task to generate JSON from the Typesafe configuration and generates a YAML that can be used by tools. YAML starts out simple but gets notoriously complex when you want to use it for real.

lazy val task2 = taskKey[String]("Converting JSON to YAML")
import cats.syntax.either._
import _root_.io.circe.yaml._
import _root_.io.circe.yaml.syntax._
val jsonString: String = task1.value
val jsonAST = _root_.io.circe.parser.parse(jsonString).valueOr(throw _)

// some options in generating YAML strings
val yamlTwoSpaces: String = jsonAST.asYaml.spaces2
val yamlFourSpaces: String = jsonAST.asYaml.spaces4
val yamlPretty: String = _root_.io.circe.yaml.Printer(dropNullKeys = true,
mappingStyle = Printer.FlowStyle.Block)
.pretty(jsonAST)

println(yamlPretty)

yamlPretty
}

### Parsing Typesafe Config

Typesafe config can be parsed to case classes for easy use in applications:

import pureconfig._
import com.typesafe.config._
import scala.collection.mutable
import scala.collection.JavaConverters._

case class HashKey(name: String, type: String)
case class SortKey(name: String, type: String)
case class DynamoDbTable(name: String, hashKey: HashKey, sortKey: Option[SortKey], stream: Option[String], rcu: Int, wcu: Int)

val conf: Config = ConfigFactory.parseString(
"""
|dynamodb {
|  table1 {
|    name = my-table-1
|    hash-key = {
|     name = myHashKey
|     type = S
|    }
|    range-key = {
|     name = myRangeKey
|     type = N
|    }
|    stream = KEYS_ONLY
|    rcu = 1
|    wcu = 1
|  }
|  table2 {
|    name = my-table-2
|    hash-key = {
|     name = myHashKey
|     type = S
|    }
|    range-key = {
|     name = myRangeKey
|     type = N
|    }
|    stream = KEYS_ONLY
|    rcu = 1
|    wcu = 1
|  }
|  table3 {
|    name = my-table-3
|    hash-key = {
|     name = myHashKey
|     type = S
|    }
|    range-key = {
|     name = myRangeKey
|     type = N
|    }
|    stream = KEYS_ONLY
|    rcu = 1
|    wcu = 1
|  }
|}
""".stripMargin
)

val dynamodb = conf.getConfig("dynamodb")
val result: mutable.Set[Either[ConfigReaderFailures, DynamoDbTable]] = {
dynamodb.root().keySet().asScala.map(dynamodb.getConfig).map { conf =>
}
}
println(result)
}

## A progress bar

Sometimes things can take some time, for example, deploying an application. Most of the time Sbt would just block until ready but wouldn’t it be nice to see a nice progress bar?
Based on code I saw on quaich, a Scala “Serverless” Microframework for AWS Lambda as presented by Brendan McAdams, he has taken the code from the S3 Plugin we can create the following:

/**
* Progress bar code borrowed from https://github.com/sbt/sbt-s3/blob/master/src/main/scala/S3Plugin.scala
*/
def progressBar(percent:Int): String = {
val b="=================================================="
val s="                                                  "
val p=percent/2
val z:StringBuilder=new StringBuilder(80)
z.append("\r[")
z.append(b.substring(0,p))
if (p<50) {z.append("=>"); z.append(s.substring(p))}
z.append("]   ")
if (p<5) z.append(" ")
if (p<50) z.append(" ")
z.append(percent)
z.append("%   ")
z.mkString
}

println(progressBar(0))
println(progressBar(25))
println(progressBar(33))
println(progressBar(50))
println(progressBar(66))
println(progressBar(75))
println(progressBar(100))
}

It would output the following:

[=>                                                  ]     0%
[=============>                                      ]    25%
[=================>                                  ]    33%
[==========================>                         ]    50%
[==================================>                 ]    66%
[======================================>             ]    75%
[==================================================]   100%
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed Nov 5, 2017 4:56:14 PM

What we need is some source that counts from 0 to 100 and that has a function to call back to like:

lazy val task1 = taskKey[Unit]("Showing a progress bar")
def goForIt(progress: Int => Unit): Unit = {
def loop(x: Int): Int = {
if (x <= 100) {
progress(x)
loop(x + 10)
} else Math.min(100, x)
}
loop(0)
}

goForIt(progress => println(progressBar(progress)))
}

Of course, normally we would register some kind of progress listener, but this will do for now.

## Setting the loglevel

The logLevel of Sbt can be set to:

• sbt.util.Level.Debug: shows a lot more information!
• sbt.util.Level.Info: (default): is the default setting and shows a normal amount of information
• sbt.util.Level.Warn: shows only warnings
• sbt.util.Level.Error: shows only errors

The default setting is sbt.util.Level.Info and the logLevel can be changed:

sbt:study-sbt> set logLevel := sbt.util.Level.Debug
[info] Defining *:logLevel
[info] The new value will be used by *:evicted, *:update
[info] Reapplying settings...
[info] Set current project to study-sbt (in build file:/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/)

You can change the loglevel back to Info by reloading the project or by setting the loglevel back to Info:

sbt:study-sbt> set logLevel := sbt.util.Level.Info
[info] Defining *:logLevel
[info] The new value will be used by *:evicted, *:update
[info] Reapplying settings...
[info] Set current project to study-sbt (in build file:/Users/dennis/projects/study-sbt/)

## SBT types to know

When studying sbt, it is handy to take a look at some parts of its codebase like:

• (sbt-main) – sbt.Keys: Defines all the available keys. This is a great place to start as all keys have a textual content to read what the keys do and also a quick way to search for keywords if you’re looking for some functionality.
• (sbt-main) – sbt.Defaults: All the default implementation and settings for the available Keys. This is a great place to go look for how a task is wired.
• (sbt-main) – sbt.Project: This class defines an sbt project. So if you type project in an sbt-session or type lazy val myproj = project in file(".") or just want a reference to the project in a build.sbt and type project somewhere in your build.sbt, you get a reference to this type.
• (sbt-io) – sbt.io.IO: The io library is a great place to get ideas to use with your own API. For starters it has some really nice implicit conversion ideas to make working with files and direrectories easy. IO.write and IO.createDirectory are a great place to start looking at the library.

## Sbt’s Design Overview

The following is an essential read to learn the design of Sbt and is part of the Sbt wiki.
The reload command’s job is to produce a BuildStructure and put it in State for future commands like task execution to use. BuildStructure is the data type that represents everything about a build: projects and relationships, evaluated settings, and logging configuration. Once the reload command has the BuildStructure value, it stores it in State.attributes, keyed by Keys.stateBuildStructure.
To pass information between commands, without the need to reload the project, the State object contains an attribute map. Because the State object is passed between commands, it is the ideal way to pass information between commands. State.attributes is a typesafe map. Keys are of type AttributeKey[T] and you can only associate values of type T with that key. State has convenience methods set/get that delegate to the underlying attributes map by means of extension methods. On State you can call among others the methods get(key): Option[T], put(key, value): State, remove(key): State, update(key)(f: Option[A] => B): State and has(key): Boolean to operate on the attribute map. This is one way a command can change the behavior of tasks without needing to reload the project: it sets attributes in State and the task accesses State via the state task.

## Project.extract

The Project.extract(state) call at its core calls state.get(Keys.stateBuildStructure) to get the BuildStructure back. It does some other things as well:

• throws a nicer exception if a project isn’t loaded
• loads the session with state.get(Keys.sessionSettings)
• returns the session and structure in an Extracted value, which provides a better interface to them

## Session settings

The SessionSettings datatype tracks a few pieces of information that are not persisted. The two main pieces are:
the current project: changed by the project command, for example
additional settings: added by the set command, for example
SessionSettings only tracks this information; setting these values on a SessionSettings object does not apply the changes. In particular, the project has to be reloaded for the additional settings to take effect. Reloading checks the settings for problems like references to non-existing settings and then the settings are reevaluated. The release plugin has a reapply method that shows the proper way to add settings to the current project.

## State Management

The following options are available for state management:

• SessionVar: The keys are of type ScopedKey[Task[T]], so TaskKeys,
• storeAs: t1 := t1.storeAs(t1).value, also use the sessionVars,
• keepAs: t1 := t1.keepAs(t1).value, also use the sessionVars,
• State.attributes: The keys are of type AttributeKey[T], so SettingKeys
• sbt.IO can read and write java.util.Properties to disk
• java.io.ObjectOutputStream in combination with sbt.IO to read or write (nope),
• Jawn with [sjson-new] to write JSON to a file in combination with IO.write/read,
• other solutions, needs adding those libraries to the classpath of sbt.

## sjson-new

sjson-new is a typeclass-based JSON codec. The library uses an indirection approach where a more generic JSON AST is being created and a ‘back-end’ JSON library can be ‘plugged-in’ to create the JSON string. Most ‘plugged-in’ libraries often also provide an AST and parsing/serializing infrastructure. The most obvious disadvantage of using a ‘proxy-based’ approach like these libraries do is being up-to-date with the latest versions of the plugged libaries.

## sbt Contraband

sbt-contraband, see the documentation. Contraband is a content language for your datatypes and APIs and enables to evolve data types over time. It generates either Java classes, or a pseudo case classes in Scala and generates JSON bindings for the datatypes.

## Play-Json

This library has a great developer experience and is very simple to use. Just add the following to your project/dependencies.sbt and you’re off:

libraryDependencies += "com.typesafe.play" %% "play-json" % "2.6.7"

You can now easily serialize to/from JSON. Create the following file in project/Person.scala:

import play.api.libs.json.Json

object Person {
implicit val format = Json.format[Person]
}
case class Person(name: String, age: Int)

and put the following in your build.sbt:

import play.api.libs.json.Json

lazy val write = taskKey[Unit]("")
write := {
val jsonStr: String = Json.toJson(Person("Dennis", 42)).toString
IO.write(baseDirectory.value / "person.json", jsonStr)
println(jsonStr)
}

val person = Json.parse(IO.read(baseDirectory.value / "person.json")).as[Person]
println(person)
}

## Apache Avro and Avro4s

avro4s is a typeclass-based library to serialize and deserialize avro records using Apache AVRO and supports schema evolution. Just add the following to your project/dependencies.sbt and you’re off:

libraryDependencies += "com.sksamuel.avro4s" %% "avro4s-core" % "1.8.0"

You can now easily serialize to/from avro records. Create the following file in project/Person.scala:

case class Person(name: String, age: Int)

and put the following in your build.sbt:

import com.sksamuel.avro4s.{AvroInputStream, AvroOutputStream}

lazy val write = taskKey[Unit]("")
write := {
val people = (1 to 10).map { i =>
Person("Dennis" + i, 42 + i)
}
val os = AvroOutputStream.data[Person](baseDirectory.value / "person.avro")
people.foreach(os.write)
os.flush()
os.close()
}

val is = AvroInputStream.data[Person](baseDirectory.value / "person.avro")
val people: List[Person] = is.iterator.toList
is.close()
people.foreach(println)
}

Now change the Person case class by adding a new field ‘luckyNumbers’:

case class Person(name: String, age: Int, luckyNumbers: Boolean = false)

Now, read the person.avro file again. You have schema evolution built-in!

The following can be used to load/save settings in your plugin:

import com.github.dnvriend.ops.AllOps
import sbt._
import sbt.complete.DefaultParsers._
import sbt.internal.util.complete.Parser
import sjsonnew.BasicJsonProtocol._

object SettingsPluginKeys {
lazy val users = taskKey[Seq[String]]("Get list of users")
lazy val userName = settingKey[String]("The user name")
lazy val printUserName = taskKey[Unit]("Shows the selected user name")
}

object SettingsPlugin extends AutoPlugin with AllOps {
override def trigger = allRequirements

val autoImport = SettingsPluginKeys

import autoImport._

def selectUserParser(state: State): Parser[String] = {
val maybeUsers = SessionVar.load(users in Global, state)
val strings = maybeUsers.getOrElse(Nil)
Space ~> StringBasic.examples(strings: _*)
}
val selectUserNameCmd = Command("selectUserName")(selectUserParser) { (state, user) =>
println("Selected: " + user)
Settings.saveSettings()
}

val loadSettingsCmd = Command.command("loadSettings") { state =>
}

object Settings {
def saveSettings(): Unit = println("Saving settings...")
}

override def projectSettings: Seq[Def.Setting[_]] = Seq(
users := Seq("foo", "bar", "baz", "quz"),
users := users.storeAs(users in Global).value,
val buildState = Keys.state.value
val log = Keys.streams.value.log